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Quran & Hadith General
The following is the translation of '.Attahiyyatu' in English. "Salutations, prayers and goodness are meant for Allah. Peace upon you 0 Prophet! And mercy, blessing of Allah may be upon you Peace be upon the righteous servants of Allah and I witness that Muhammad (s.a.w.w.) is His servant and His messenger. Allah! Send thy blessings upon Muhammad and his progeny. Peace be upon you and the Mercy and Blessings of Allah upon you:'
a. About the meat of pigs, please see the book "Pork" available in www.wofis.com b. About the other animals: All the animals which are forbidden in Islam are of such nature that they inflict harm to the eater; that harm may be either physical or spiritual or both. For example, we are not allowed to eat meat of beasts of prey (like eagle, kite, etc.) because they create brutality in the nature of the eater (spiritual harm) or the carcass of even lawful animals if they are not slaughtered according to the Islamic Law, because the blood which invariably congeals in the dead-body of such animals is harmful to the health (physical harm).
Jinn'': In many passages of the Qur'an "Jinn" and man are spoken of together. In an ayat 'man' is stated to have been created from clay while "Jinn'' from fire. There is much argument about the real nature of "Jinn'' but it is safe to say that they are a creation of God, who are hidden from our eyes and have been given "Intelligence" like human beings and are required to follow the Sheriat sent by Allah. "Iblis" and "Satan'' refer to the same person. He is from "Jinn': was elevated to worship Allah with the angels; and that is why he was included in the order of doing "Sajdah" towards Adam (as.). "Ifreet": ''.A huge, powerful Jinn''.
Islam is a religion whose aim is to improve your relationship with your Creator, by enhancing your spiritual qualities and perfecting your character. It is not a science or an arts club. The Qur'an is a guide for life and a code of conduct, not a treatise on physics or astronomy. Therefore, your question is not properly framed. Of course if Islam or Qur'an had said that the earth was static, then you could have protested why it gave the wrong information. So, you have to keep in mind this basic principle: Qur'an is a book meant primarily for religious, spiritual and ethical uplift of mankind. If it fulfils this need, you should be thankful to Allah; and try to follow its teachings. Then, if in passing, it throws some light on any scientific or historical subject, it is just incidental and not its main purpose. Of course, if it contained any wrong information, e.g. if it said that Nabi Ibrahim was before Nabi Nuh, such error could be used to prove that it was not the word of Allah. Because it was not accurate. On the other hand, if this book remains silent on any such subject, no objection can be raised against it. I hope this explanation will enlighten you on the role of Islam and Qur'an in our life.
There are several collections of Ahadith from Shi'a sources the earliest of which is Al-Ka.fl, collected by Thiqatul Islam Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Ya'qab Al-Kulaini Ar-Razi, who was born in 260 A.H. and died in 329 A.H. His life-span coincided exactly with the period of Ghaibat-e-Sughra (the Lesser Occultation), when our 12th Imam lived in Samarra, but people were not allowed to meet the Imam. His Chief Deputies resided in Baghdad. Abu Jafar Kulaini also lived in Baghdad, and was highly respected by all the Deputies oflmam (a.s.). He had a unique opportunity to sift and analyse the Ahadith And, thus, after 20 years' continuous back-breaking effort, Al-Ka.fl came into being. This book alone contains more ahadith than all the six authenti books (Sihah-e-Sitta) of the Sunnis put together. Some other scholars have also collected the ahadith from othe books; famous among them are: Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin 'Ali (bin Husain bin Musa bin Babwayh Qummi), popularly known as Shaikh Saduq (died 381 A.H. ) wrote "Man la Yahduruhul Faqih". Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Hasan bin 'Ali At-Tusi, popularly known as Shaikhut Taifa and Shaikh Tusi (born 385 A.H. died 466 A.H) wrote "Tahzib-ul-Ahkam" and "Al-Istibsar". The later two books opened the way for critical study of Ahadith, and, thus, laid the foundation of Ijtihad. You may have noticed that all the three authors of these four books were named Muhammad, and had Kunya of ''Abu Ja'far". If a hadith is found in any of the above mentioned books, it does not follow that that hadith is automatically authentic. Likewise if a hadith is found in other collections which are compiled by trustworthy scholars and fulfils all conditions of authenticity, it will be accepted as authentic even if it is not found in any of the above mentioned books. In the later period collections of Ahadith by the following jurists became very popular: "Biharul-Anwar" (in 25 bulky volumes) by 'A.llama Majlisi. (Muhammad Baqir bin Muhammad Taqi) (died in 1011 A.H.). "al-Wwafi" by Mulla Muhsin Paid (Muhammad bin Murtada bin Muhmud) (Died in 1091 A.H.). "Wasayil-us-shia" written by 'A.llama Muhammad bin Hasan Al-Hurr (Died in 1104 A.H) You will notice that these three traditionalist also were named Muhammad. They are called "The Later Three Muhammads". In this century, 'A.llama Husain Nuri wrote "Mustadrakul-Wasel" in 1319 AH., (died in 1320 A.H.).
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